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Slovene National Theatre Maribor

Georges Bizet

Carmen

Director: Juan Guillermo Nova

Schedule

18.03.2022 at 19:30 Grand Hall

Premiere

Tickets

20.03.2022 at 17:00 Grand Hall

Tickets

22.03.2022 at 19:30 Grand Hall

Tickets

24.03.2022 at 19:30 Grand Hall

Tickets

26.03.2022 at 19:30 Grand Hall

Tickets

Premiere: 18 March 2022, Grand Hall

Opera v štirih dejanjih

Glasba Georges Bizet
Libreto Henri Meilhac, Ludovic Halévy (po istoimenski noveli Prosperja Mériméeja)
Praizvedba opere 3. marec 1875, Opéra-Comique, Pariz

Premiera 18. marec 2022, Velika dvorana

Ko je na začetku leta 1873 Georges Bizet od ravnatelja pariškega glasbenega gledališča Opéra-Comique Camilla du Locla prejel naročilo, naj napiše opero Carmen, je Mériméejeva istoimenska novela, po kateri sta Henri Meilhac in Ludovic Halévy napisala operni libreto, že skoraj tri desetletja vznemirjala francosko, zlasti pariško družbo. Vsebina novele naj bi domnevno izhajala iz resnične zgodbe, ki jo Mériméeju med njegovim študijskim potovanjem po Španiji zaupala grofica María Manuela Kirkpatrick de Montijo. Mérimée je najvznemirljivejše dogodke iz življenja ciganke Carmen strnil v koherentno pripoved s tragičnim koncem (anti)junakinje, ki je morala umreti zaradi maščevalnega ljubosumja zavrnjenega ljubimca (Don Joséja). Kot zanimivost, ki potrjuje avtentičnost opernega sižeja, velja omeniti tudi ohranjen Mériméejev potopis, v katerem je pisec omenil svoje naključno srečanje s Carmen in pozneje tudi z Joséjem, ki je medtem že prestajal zaporno kazen v čakanju na smrtno obsodbo. Prav Joséjevo pričevanje o njegovem usodnem srečanju s Carmen je ohranjeno tudi v Mériméejevi noveli, ki je v celoti prvič izšla v knjižni obliki leta 1846.

Bizetev močan naslov na naturalizem kot do skrajnosti prignanega realizma se zrcali v prepričanju, da mora libreto odražati "resnico ulice" oziroma postati zvest pričevalec tega, kar se je v resnici zgodilo, kar še posebej velja za fenomen "neprijetne resnice". Libretista Meilhac in Halévy sta z upoštevanjem Bizetevih napotkov povečini sledila Mériméejevemu pripovednemu toku, a sta ga za potrebe jasnejše odrske (re)prezentacije nekoliko racionalizirala in osredotočila na ljubezenski odnos med Carmen in Don Joséjem, pri tem pa izločila nekatere neke nebistvene osebe. Kot Joséjevega nasprotnika sta tako libretista postavila le bikoborca (toreadorja) Escamilla, kot "spodobni" ženski antipod Carmen pa dobrosrčno in naivno meščansko dekle Micaëlo. Radikalna in deloma tudi šokantna vsebina opere, ki se skozi poveličanje ženskega užitka v ljubezni poigrava s tradicionalnim binarizmom patriarhata, je v pregovorno liberalno francosko družbo vnesla nov, ženski pogled na ljubezen in spolnost, ki ga je šovinistična doktrina psevdopsihoanalize označevala s histerijo, čeprav je v resnici stvar drugačna: vse načrtne črnitve in neutemeljene kritike opere Carmen, ki so jih vestno producirali predvsem na "moralno zaskrbljenem" desnem političnem polu, gre danes predvsem razumeti kot podle poskuse impotentnega in domišljijsko osiromašenega patriarhata, da bi ukrotil libidinalni duh ženske in onemogočil plasiranje ženske kot legitimne heroine v družbi bližnje prihodnosti.

Z opero Carmen, ki je bila prvič izvedena 3. marca 1875 v pariški Opéri-Comique, je Bizet nedvomno odstrl novo glasbeno atmosfero, orkestrski kolorit, onomatopejski glasbeni naturalizem španskega juga in s tako rekoč popolno glasbenodramaturško napetostjo dosegel svoj poslednji umetniški vrh, ki ga velja razumeti kot zanesljiv preobrat k opernemu verizmu. Večplastnost glasbenega toposa in daljnosežnost Bizeteve Carmen je občudovala cela vrsta skladateljev in filozofov, med drugimi tudi Čajkovski in Nietzsche. Zlasti slednji je v Bizetevi partituri, ki še danes nima svoje "etablirane" dokončne podobe – kar velja pripisati predvsem dokomponiranim recitativom, ki so v produkcijah po praizvedbi nadomestili odrski govor, sicer značilen za zvrst francoske opére comique –, občudoval "dramsko mojstrstvo", motiv usode pa je označil kot "epigram strasti" in nasploh najboljše, kar je bilo (tokrat sicer v glasbeni "literaturi") o ljubezni napisanega po Stendhalu.

 

Cast

Conductor: Jon Svinghammar

Carmen - Guadalupe Barrientos
Martin Sušnik
Andreja Zakonjšek Krt
Luka Ortar
Valentina Čuden
Milica Lalošević
Dada Kladenik
Bogdan Stopar
Dušan Topolovec
Marko Mandir
Sebastijan Čelofiga
Bojan Hiteregger


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